Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
7
2
2016
07
01
Investigation of performances of solvents D2EHPA, Cyanex272, and their mixture system in separation of some rare earth elements from a Nitric Acid solution
143
148
EN
Seyyed M.
Seyyed Alizadeh Ganji
School of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
smsag@shahroodut.ac.ir
S. Z.
Shafaie
School of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
zshafaie@ut.ac.ir
N.
Goudarzi
Faculty of Chemistry, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
goudarzi@shahroodut.ac.ir
10.22044/jme.2016.476
This work was aimed to evaluate and compare the performances of the solvents D2EHPA (Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid), Cyanex 272 (bis (2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid), and a mixture system of D2EHPA and Cyanex272 in the separation of some rare earth elements (REEs) including lanthanum, gadolinium, neodymium, and dyspersym from a nitric acid solution. The results obtained showed that Cyane272 had the lowest separation factor in the separation of Dy, La, Nd, and Gd from each other. Also it was found that a mixture system of D2EHPA and Cyanex272 had the best performance in the separation of the investigated REEs, owing to the higher separation factors for Dy/Nd and Dy/Gd, as well as the lower extraction efficiencies for Gd (64.54%), La (30.07%), and Nd (26.47) from Dy (99.92). It was also determined that the separation factors forDy/Nd and Dy/Gd were 720.05 and 3640.27, respectively, using their mixture system.
Rare Earth Elements (REEs),Separation Factor,D2EHPA,Cyanex272,Mixture System
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_476.html
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_476_88a8213e8d75c01f101765522bc18022.pdf
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
7
2
2016
07
01
A comparative study of performance of K-nearest neighbors and support vector machines for classification of groundwater
149
164
EN
M.
Sakizadeh
Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran
msakizadeh@gmail.com
R.
Mirzaei
Department of Environmental Sciences,University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
iman_a2004@yahoo.com
10.22044/jme.2016.480
The aim of this work is to examine the feasibilities of the support vector machines (SVMs) and K-nearest neighbor (K-NN) classifier methods for the classification of an aquifer in the Khuzestan Province, Iran. For this purpose, 17 groundwater quality variables including EC, TDS, turbidity, pH, total hardness, Ca, Mg, total alkalinity, sulfate, nitrate, nitrite, fluoride, phosphate, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Cr(VI) from 41 wells and springs were used during an eight-year time period (2006 to 2013). The cluster analysis was used, leading to a dendrogram that differentiated two distinct groups. The factor analysis extracted eight factors accumulatively, accounting for 90.97% of the total variance. Thus the variations in 17 variables could be covered by just eight factors. K-NN and SVMs were applied for the classification of the aquifer under study. The results of SVMs indicated that the best performed model was related to an exponent of degree one with an accuracy of 94% for the test data set, in which the sensitivity and specificity were 1.00 and 0.87, respectively. In addition, there was no significant difference among the results of different kernels, indicating that an acceptable result can be achieved by selecting the optimum parameters for a kernel. The results of K-NN showed roughly a lower efficiency compared with those of SVMs, where the sensitivity and specificity was reduced to 0.90 and 0.88, respectively, although the accuracy of the model was 93%. A sensitivity analysis was performed on the groundwater quality variables, suggesting that calcium next to nitrate were the most influential parameters in the classification of this aquifer.
Groundwater,Support Vector Machines,K-Nearest Neighbors,Kernel Functions
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_480.html
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_480_f2ac50186ad655b118596898526f3d03.pdf
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
7
2
2016
07
01
Ranking and comparing of traditional and industrial coke making by TOPSIS technique in Shahrood Simin Coke Company
165
173
EN
I.
Montazeri
Department of Mining Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood Branch, Shahrood, Iran
i.montazeri@gmail.com
M.
Taji
Shahrood Simin Coke Company, Shahrood, Iran
taji@ymail.com
10.22044/jme.2016.512
Various traditional and industrial coke making techniques were discussed based on their limitations and production capacities, and the criteria such as the quality and size of coke production, amount of coke crumb, amount of investment, amount of operational costs, labor force and mechanization. In this work, the rankings of various traditional and industrial coke making techniques were carried out using a multi-criteria decision making with technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS), in which, at first, industrial heat recovery coke oven, by product coke oven and non-recovery coke oven and then traditional bee-hive coke making was performed in Shahrood Simin Coke Company. The designed oven decreased both the environmental pollution and the amount of coke crumb, and increased the coke production and coke recovery qualities.
Coke Making,Decision Making,Traditional and Industrial Ovens
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_512.html
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_512_c0a51fb337d619d4678f96adc2b1c03c.pdf
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
7
2
2016
07
01
Estimation of penetration rate of tunnel boring machines using Monte-Carlo simulation method
175
184
EN
H.
Dehghani
Department of Mining Engineering, Hamedan University of Technology, Hamedan, Iran
dehghani@hut.ac.ir
N.
Mikhak Beiranvand
Department of Mining Engineering, Hamedan University of Technology, Hamedan, Iran
hesam.dehghan@aut.ac.ir
10.22044/jme.2016.513
One of the most important parameters used for determining the performance of tunnel boring machines (TBMs) is their penetration rate. The parameters affecting the penetration rate can be divided in two categories. The first category is the controllable parameters such as the TBM technical characteristics, and type and geometry of the tunnel, and the second one is the uncontrollable parameters such as the intact rock properties and characteristics of the rock mass discontinuities. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of rock mass properties on the penetration rate, and to present a new mathematical equation based on a statistical approach to estimate the TBM performance. To achieve this aim, the Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation method was used to model the TBM performance. Accordingly, the database consisting of the rock mechanics information such as the uniaxial compressive strength, Brazilian tensile strength, toughness and hardness of rock, spacing and orientation of discontinuities, and measured TBM penetration rate in 151 points out of a water tunnel was collected. Next, using the dimensional analysis, a comprehensive mathematical equation was obtained to calculate the TBM penetration rates using the developed database. Finally, using the MC simulation method, the probability distribution function of the TBM penetration rate was studied. The validation results obtained showed that the root mean square error (RMSE) of the proposed relationship was less than 0.3. The MC simulation results showed that hardness and density had the most and least effects on the penetration rate, respectively.
TBM,Penetration Rate,Monte-Carlo (MC) Simulation,Dimensional Analysis
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_513.html
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_513_c8e7d5993cfdfee89f1e4322541ef7ff.pdf
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
7
2
2016
07
01
Semi-quantitative environmental impact assessment and sustainability level determination of coal mining using a mathematical model
185
193
EN
M.
Ataei
School of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
ataei@shahroodut.ac.ir
E.
Tajvidi Asr
School of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
e.tajvidi@shahroodut.ac.ir
R.
Khalokakaie
School of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
r_kakaie@shahroodut.ac.ir
K.
Ghanbari
School of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
keramat_ghanbari@yahoo.com
M. R.
Tavakoli Mohammadi
Beneficiation and Hydrometallurgy Research Group, Mineral processing Research Center, Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACCER) on TMU, Tehran, Iran
mr.tavakolimohammadi@modares.ac.ir
10.22044/jme.2016.515
Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has led to the dominance of planners on the natural environment of the regions, providing the possibility of continuously monitoring and controlling the status quo by management staff. In this regard, a new semi-quantitative model is presented for the EIA of the Eastern Alborz Coal Mining complex using the matrix method, and determining the corresponding impacting factors and environmental components. For this purpose, the expert opinions are used to gather the preliminary data and score the parameters involved. The effect of each impacting factor involved on each environmental component is determined by quantifying the qualitative comments. According to the results obtained, the components air quality, human health and safety, and ecology and soil of the area undergo the most environmental damages from the mining activities. Then the EIA results obtained are used to assess the sustainability of the complex using the Phillips mathematical model. The results obtained indicate that the sustainability of this complex is weak, and, therefore, the preventive environmental measures with a preference must be recommended to reduce the environmental damages to its components.
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA),Sustainable Development,Phillips Mathematical Model,Eastern Alborz Coal Mines
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_515.html
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_515_1ce4b6541815cb75ad415049140b3c0b.pdf
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
7
2
2016
07
01
Concentration and recycling of rare earth elements (REEs) from iron mine waste using a combination of physical separation methods
195
203
EN
M.
Moghise
Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
----@yahoo.com
M.
Pourrahim
Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
-----@yahoo.com
B.
Rezai
Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
------@yahoo.com
M.
Gharabaghi
School of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
gharabaghi@ut.ac.ir
10.22044/jme.2016.521
This study aims to investigate and optimize the effects of the main parameters including the particle size, gravity and magnetic separation combination, high gradient magnetic separation, magnetic field intensity, shaking table slope, washing water flow, and electrostatic separation upon the rare earth element (REE) recoveries from iron mine waste. The electron microprobe showed that high amounts of REEs were distributed on the fluorapatite mineral, and hence, it was necessary to remove the high magnetic minerals by a low-intensity magnetic separation using a magnetic drum in an experimental procedure. A cyclic magnetic separator was used for the low-gradient magnetic separation. Moreover, a shaking table and an electrostatic separator were used to expand the recovery and grade of REEs. A combination of these methods was considered to optimize the REE recoveries based on the best combination including two steps of low magnetic separation, one step of medium intensity magnetic separation, a shaking table, and an electrostatic separator. Two low-intensity magnetic of 800 and 2000 gauss, one medium-intensity magnetic of 8000 gauss, a one-step shaking table with a water flow of 90 mL/s and a table slope of 3 degree, and one electrostatic separator of 25000 V with a blade angel of 20 degree had the best performance to separate REEs. The microscopic studies carried out showed that the monazite degree of freedom was between 75 and 105 micron. The results obtained showed that a particle size of ‒75 + 63 micron was a proper one to separate REEs. The total recovery and grade of the REE (Ce, La, Nd, Er, and Gd) concentrate obtained from the sample with a grade of 1499 ppm of REEs were 67.1 and 1.2%, respectively, at the optimum conditions. The results obtained showed that there was a direct relation between the phosphor grade and the REE recoveries, and that the REE recoveries increased by increasing the quantity of phosphor.
Rare Earth Elements (REEs),Choqart Iron Waste,Fluorapatite,Magnetic Separation,Shaking Table
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_521.html
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_521_95a4a79e49553abe023f57e0dfc7706f.pdf
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
7
2
2016
07
01
Numerical investigation of effect of crack geometrical parameters on hydraulic fracturing process of hydrocarbon reservoirs
205
214
EN
A.
Abdollahipour
Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
a.abdollahipour@yahoo.com
M.
Fatehi Marji
Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
mohammad.fatehi@gmail.com
A. R.
Yarahmadi Bafghi
Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
ayarahmadi@yahoo.com
J.
Gholamnejad
Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
jgholamnejad@gmail.com
10.22044/jme.2016.532
Hydraulic fracturing (HF), as a stimulation technique in petroleum engineering, has made possible the oil production from reservoirs with very low permeability. The combination of horizontal drilling and multiple HF with various perforation angles has been widely used to stimulate oil reservoirs for economical productions. Despite the wide use of HF, there are still ambiguous aspects that require more investigation. Therefore, optimizing the geometry of the initial fractures using numerical methods is of high importance in a successful HF operation. Different geometrical parameters of the initial HF cracks including patterns, spacings, crack lengths, and perforation phase angles were modeled using the higher order displacement discontinuity method (HODDM) in horizontal and vertical oil wells. Several well-known issues in HF such as crack interference and crack arrest were observed in certain patterns of the HF cracks. Also the best possible arrangements of the HF cracks were determined for a better production. The results obtained were verified by the in-situ measurements existing in the literature. In addition, the best perforation phase angle in vertical wells was investigated and determined.
Hydraulic Fracturing,Well Stimulation,Crack Propagation,Crack Interference,Perforation
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_532.html
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_532_04cb12de11020aa1aec7447abb660a0c.pdf
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
7
2
2016
07
01
Commodity price uncertainty propagation in open-pit mine production planning by Latin hypercube sampling method
215
227
EN
M.
Mokhtarian Asl
Faculty of Mining Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran
m.mokhtarian@uut.ac.ir
J.
Sattarvand
Faculty of Mining Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran
sattarvand@sut.ac.ir
10.22044/jme.2016.541
Production planning of an open-pit mine is a procedure during which the rock blocks are assigned to different production periods in a way that leads to the highest net present value (NPV) subject to some operational and technical constraints. This process becomes much more complicated by incorporation of the uncertainty existing in the input parameters. The commodity price uncertainty is among the most significant factors, whose effects cannot be mitigated through further exploration or investigation. The present work introduced a new approach for integration of the commodity price uncertainty into long-term production planning of open-pit mines. The procedure involves solving the problem by the integer programming method based on a series of economic block models that are realized based on the sampled prices from commodity price distribution function using the median Latin hypercube sampling method. The results obtained showed that the new methodology is able to reduce the risks and the net present value of the new approach at a confidence level 80% more than the conventional methods.
Open-Pit Mine Production Planning,Commodity Price Uncertainty,Uncertainty Propagation,Latin Hypercube Sampling
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_541.html
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_541_4a2bfb529a6de8967a8f8d2440484497.pdf
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
7
2
2016
07
01
Estimation of groundwater inflow situation using fuzzy logic: a case study (Beheshtabad water conveying tunnel, Iran)
229
238
EN
M.
Doustmohammadi
School of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
doustmohammadi@ut.ac.ir
A.
Jafari
School of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
ajafari@ut.ac.ir
O.
Asghari
Simulation and Data Processing Laboratory, School of Mining Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
o.asghari@ut.ac.ir
10.22044/jme.2016.549
Water inflow is one of the most important challenges in the underground excavations. In addition to inducing working conditions and environmental problems, it decreases the stability and quality of the surrounding rocks. The direct method of measuring rock mass hydraulic conductivity consists of drilling the boreholes and observing the rate of fluid lost in the boreholes. Applying this method is still problematic due to the depth of underground spaces, and also the groundwater level covering them. Therefore, many researchers have tried to predict the water inflow indirectly. This paper attempts to predict the groundwater conditions in the Beheshtabad tunnel (in Iran) using the fuzzy inference system based on the datasets acquired from the preliminary exploration studies. 250 datasets for the Beheshtabad tunnel were used out of which, 200 datasets were used to develop the model and 50 were used to validate the results obtained. 90% accuracy was obtained through comparing the fuzzy estimation and actual groundwater conditions. The proposed model can be used with much less degree of complexity for prediction of the groundwater conditions as well as decreasing the overall costs of the exploration measurements, and due to these characteristics, it is applicable for most users.
Groundwater Conditions,Water Inflow,Fuzzy Inference System,Beheshtabad Tunnel
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_549.html
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_549_e7520862819a7a1d62b0eab693483028.pdf
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
7
2
2016
07
01
Permeability upscaling in fractured reservoirs using different optimized mother wavelets at each level
239
250
EN
R.
Vahedi
School of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
razieh.vahedi@gmail.com
B.
Tokhmechi
School of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
tokhmechi@alumni.ut.ac.ir
M.
Koneshloo
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, USA
koneshloo@gmail.com
10.22044/jme.2016.551
We use a multi-resolution analysis based on a wavelet transform to upscale a 3D fractured reservoir. This paper describes a 3D, single-phase, and black-oil geological model (GM) that is used to simulate naturally-fractured reservoirs. The absolute permeability and porosity of GM is upscaled by all the possible combinations of Haar, Bior1.3, and Db4 wavelets in three levels of coarsening. The applied upscaling method creates a non-uniform computational grid, which preserves its resolved structure in the near-well zones as well as in the high-permeability sectors but the data are scaled up in the other regions. To demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method, the values for the oil production rate, mean reservoir pressure, water cut, and total amount of water production are studied, and their mean error is estimated for the upscaled models. Finally, the optimized model is selected based on the computation time and accuracy value.
3D Simulation,Fractured Reservoir,Upscaling,Wavelet Transform,Optimization
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_551.html
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_551_cfe5cb6d4a074f18cfc3221b6bb142fc.pdf
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
7
2
2016
07
01
Numerical analysis of energy transmission through discontinuities and fillings in Kangir Dam
251
259
EN
A.
Siamaki
Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
ali.siamaki@aut.ac.ir
H.
Bakhshandeh Amnieh
School of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
hbakhshandeh@ut.ac.ir
10.22044/jme.2016.563
A considerable amount of energy is released in the form of shock wave from explosive charge detonation. Shock wave energy is responsible for the creation of crushing and fracture zone around the blast hole. The rest of the shock wave energy is transferred to rock mass as ground vibration. Ground vibration is conveyed to the adjacent structures by body and surface waves. Geological structures like faults, fractures, and fillings play important roles in the wave attenuation. Studying the mechanism of ground wave propagation from blasts gives a better understanding about the stress wave transmission and its effect on the near structures. In this research work, the stress wave transmissions from discontinuities and fillings were evaluated using a field measurement and a Universal Distinct Element Code (UDEC). A single-hole blast was conducted in the Kangir dam, and the resulting vibrations were measured in many points before and after the faults. Numerical simulation shows the effects of geo-mechanical properties of fillings on the reflection and refraction rate of the stress wave. There are more energy reflections in the rock boundaries and soil fillings, and more energy is absorbed by soil fillings compared with rock fillings. Furthermore, there is a close correlation between the ground vibration records for the Kangir dam and the numerical results. The maximum relative error between the actual records and the simulated ones was found to be 18.5%, which shows the UDEC ability for the prediction of blast vibrations.
Peak Particle Velocity,Discontinuity,Filling,Attenuation,Blasting
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_563.html
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_563_4eab249b122ee88ee0f091c9b2fa81cc.pdf
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
7
2
2016
07
01
Role of smile correction in mineral detection on hyperion data
261
272
EN
M.
Mohammady Oskouei
Faculty of Mining Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran
mohammady@sut.ac.ir
S.
Babakan
Faculty of Mining Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran
s_babakan@sut.ac.ir
10.22044/jme.2016.567
This work aims to extract the mineralogical constituents of the Lahroud Hyperion scene situated in the NW of Iran. Like the other push-broom sensors, Hyperion images suffer from spectral distortions, namely the smile effect. The corresponding spectral curvature is defined as an across-track wavelength shift from the nominal central wavelength, and alters the pixel spectra. The common “column mean adjusted in MNF space” method was employed in this work to improve the processing accuracy by minimizing the smile effect before carrying out the atmospheric and topographical corrections. The mineral distributions were mapped by applying the standardized hyperspectral processing methodology developed by analytical imaging and geophysics (AIG). The spectral unmixing of the data resulted in the identification of five indicative minerals including natrolite, opal, analcime, kaolinite, and albite; and their spectra were employed for the generation of their distribution maps. Comparison of the results of the data processing with and without smile correction indicated a better classification performance after the smile correction. Quantitative validation of the final mineralogical map was performed using the 100 k geological map and reports of the region. Therefore, the coverage of the extracted minerals were investigated regarding the location of the lithological units in ArcGIS that implies a high coincidence. The mineral distributions in the final map show a high consistency with the geological map of the studied area, and thus it could be utilized successfully to reveal the mineralization trend in the region.
Hyperion Data,Standardized Hyperspectral Processing Methodology,Smile Correction,Mineralogical Mapping
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_567.html
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_567_3a5d54c9edc24f269fb59ff72bd93e30.pdf